To identify oncogene amplification involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, we studied 21 ovarian carcinomas and 5 serous borderline tumors using conventional comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and CGH to a genomic DNA microarray. Immunohistochemical analysis of the proteins encoded by the genes that were amplified frequently (FGF3/4, FGFR1, CCNE1, PAK1, JUNB, and MDM2) was performed on a tissue microarray comprising 254 cases of ovarian neoplasms. Regarding histologic type, characteristic patterns of copy number changes were revealed. They correlated with histologic tumor type and with intratumoral heterogeneity. Gain of FGF3/4 and CCNE1 was found in all serous carcinomas. Endometrioid carcinomas most frequently showed gain of JUNB (83%), KRAS2 (67%), MYCN (50%), ESR (50%), and CCND2 (50%). Of the serous borderline tumors, 80% harbored amplification of FGFR1 and MDM2 and a 75% gain of PIK3CA. Only CCNE1 immunoreactivity was significantly correlated with CGH results (P < .05) and postoperative survival (P < .05). Microarray-based genomic analysis in combination with immunohistochemical analysis was found to be a powerful technique for identification of clinically relevant gene amplification in human ovarian cancer.