Hypertensive renal vascular disease and cardiovascular endpoints

Curr Opin Cardiol. 2006 Jul;21(4):305-9. doi: 10.1097/01.hco.0000231399.02481.de.


Purpose of review: Hypertension involves the entire cardiovascular system, and hypertensive vascular disease may promote and exacerbate cardiac and renal dysfunction. We discuss the coexistence of cardiorenal disease as a manifestation of vascular involvement in hypertension, and the relationship of biomarkers of renal vascular involvement in hypertension with cardiovascular endpoints.

Recent findings: Markers of renal dysfunction, especially microalbuminuria, have been considered recently as potent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in all explored populations, including hypertensive individuals. Microalbuminuria, per se, is related to vascular injury and to the increased glomerular permeability of albumin as a direct manifestation of renal vascular involvement in hypertension, a systemic vascular disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertension develops even before proteinuria or impairment of renal function. Factors including anemia, inflammation and hyperuricemia are either induced or exacerbated by renal vascular disease, and each of these may exert additional influence in determining the increased incidence of cardiovascular events with progressive renal dysfunction.

Summary: The development and progression of vascular disease is the primary determinant in the progressive cardiac and renal dysfunction observed in hypertension and, therefore, is the underlying mechanism of the overall clinical manifestations of cardiorenal disease. Commonly used biomarkers of renal and vascular function are important tools for determination of the progression and, hence, management of hypertensive disease and its complications.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Albuminuria / etiology
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Disease Progression
  • Erythropoietin / blood
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / blood
  • Hypertension / complications*
  • Hypertension / physiopathology*
  • Hyperuricemia / etiology
  • Natriuretic Peptide, Brain / metabolism
  • Renal Insufficiency / blood
  • Renal Insufficiency / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency / etiology*
  • Renal Insufficiency / physiopathology*
  • Uric Acid / blood


  • Biomarkers
  • Erythropoietin
  • Natriuretic Peptide, Brain
  • Uric Acid
  • C-Reactive Protein