A Community-based study of risk factors for Trichomonas vaginalis infection among women and their male partners in Moshi urban district, northern Tanzania

Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Dec;33(12):712-8. doi: 10.1097/01.olq.0000222667.42207.08.


Objective: The objective of this study was to determine predictors of Trichomonas vaginalis among women and their partners in Moshi, Tanzania.

Study design: Women (N = 1440) and their partners (N = 588) were interviewed and specimens for detection of T. vaginalis and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were collected.

Results: Prevalence of T. vaginalis was 10.7% in women and 6.3% in men. Having a partner with T. vaginalis was the strongest risk factor in women (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 19.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.84-48.25) and men (adjusted OR, 19.01; 95% CI, 6.8-52.40). Risk of T. vaginalis infection was increased in subjects with less education. Other risk factors in women were daily alcohol consumption, being separated, reporting infertility problems, having a partner who had children with other women, and other STIs; and in men, the risk factor was having no income. T. vaginalis was not associated with HIV-1 in women and men.

Conclusions: Prevention of T. vaginalis and other STIs among couples is a major priority. Reduction of alcohol consumption in women is an important intervention.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alcohol Drinking
  • Animals
  • Community Health Services
  • DNA, Protozoan / analysis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sexual Partners
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tanzania / epidemiology
  • Trichomonas Vaginitis / epidemiology*
  • Trichomonas Vaginitis / etiology
  • Trichomonas Vaginitis / prevention & control*
  • Trichomonas Vaginitis / urine
  • Trichomonas vaginalis / genetics
  • Trichomonas vaginalis / isolation & purification


  • DNA, Protozoan