A cytogenetic study was performed on Chernobyl cleanup workers, on their children, on persons evacuated from contaminated aeria (adult and children), on so named "veterans of particular risk" irradiated due to the accidents on the nuclear plant, testing of nuclear weapons etc. and on control donors. The yield of stable (FISH analysis) and of unstable chromosome aberrations, micronuclei in both lymphocytes and erythrocytes, HPRT mutations was found to be increased in exposed groups as compared to control ones. In children of liquidators and in evacuated children we observed genomic instability and increased in vitro chromosomal radiosensitivity. Acceleration of age accumulation of translocations characterized the exposed population in comparison with control group. People with the highest level of routine chromosome aberrations had cardiovascular and digestive diseases more often likely than those with the lowest level. In frame of International Project ECP-6--"Biological dosimetry" the dose-responses for dicentrics and translocations were constructed in dose range 0-100 cGy of gamma-irradiation on the base of data of 8 laboratories. On cancer patients undergone whole-body gamma-irradiation (every day at the dose 11.5 cGy to a total of dose 57.5 cGy) we constructed the dose-responses for the dicentrics and translocations and compared them with the dose-responses for these aberrations after the in vitro irradiation of lymphocytes of the same patients. For the dicentrics the effectiveness of the in vivo irradiation was less than of the in vitro one. No differences were found for translocations.