Signaling pathways in skeletal muscle remodeling

Annu Rev Biochem. 2006;75:19-37. doi: 10.1146/annurev.biochem.75.103004.142622.

Abstract

Skeletal muscle is comprised of heterogeneous muscle fibers that differ in their physiological and metabolic parameters. It is this diversity that enables different muscle groups to provide a variety of functional properties. In response to environmental demands, skeletal muscle remodels by activating signaling pathways to reprogram gene expression to sustain muscle performance. Studies have been performed using exercise, electrical stimulation, transgenic animal models, disease states, and microgravity to show genetic alterations and transitions of muscle fibers in response to functional demands. Various components of calcium-dependent signaling pathways and multiple transcription factors, coactivators and corepressors have been shown to be involved in skeletal muscle remodeling. Understanding the mechanisms involved in modulating skeletal muscle phenotypes can potentiate the development of new therapeutic measures to ameliorate muscular diseases.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anabolic Agents / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Atrophy / metabolism
  • Calcineurin / metabolism
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Histone Deacetylases / metabolism
  • Isoenzymes / metabolism
  • MEF2 Transcription Factors
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Muscle, Skeletal / cytology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / pathology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Muscular Dystrophies / metabolism
  • Myofibrils / physiology
  • Myogenic Regulatory Factors / metabolism
  • NFATC Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • PPAR delta / metabolism
  • Protein Kinase C / metabolism
  • Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*
  • Somatomedins / metabolism
  • Steroids / metabolism
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • ras Proteins / metabolism

Substances

  • Anabolic Agents
  • Isoenzymes
  • MEF2 Transcription Factors
  • Myogenic Regulatory Factors
  • NFATC Transcription Factors
  • PPAR delta
  • Somatomedins
  • Steroids
  • Transcription Factors
  • peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1
  • Protein Kinases
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • protein kinase D
  • Protein Kinase C
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Calcineurin
  • Histone Deacetylases
  • ras Proteins