When antisera to purified myelin antigens were injected into rat sciatic nerves, some produced significant demyelination, whereas others merely induced an inflammatory infiltrate. Extensive demyelination was produced by antisera to galactocerebroside and the peripheral nerve glycoprotein P0. Demyelination resulting from injections of antisera to ganglioside GM1, P2, myelin basic protein, sulfatide, and glucocerebroside did not exceed that produced by normal rabbit serum. Addition of guinea pig complement had no effect. It is of interest that the greatest demyelination followed injection of antisera to two molecules, galactocerebroside and P0, the main antigenic determinants of which present at the Schwann cell surface.