A brief review is provided on the role of experimental modulation of the visual system during its plastic period. The importance of several substances has been demonstrated. Potential clinical applications of available studies on the treatment of amblyopia are summarized. The role of the dopaminergic system and particularly of dopamine in amblyopia are also discussed. The results of the use of cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline) in amblyopia are evaluated in detail. The advantages of and indications for an association of citicoline with part-time occlusion are also discussed. Finally, new administration modalities of citicoline, more detailed evaluation of its efficacy, and the use of new substances are briefly analyzed.