Electrolyzed-reduced water reduced hemodialysis-induced erythrocyte impairment in end-stage renal disease patients

Kidney Int. 2006 Jul;70(2):391-8. doi: 10.1038/sj.ki.5001576. Epub 2006 Jun 7.

Abstract

Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients increase erythrocyte susceptibility to hemolysis and impair cell survival. We explored whether electrolyte-reduced water (ERW) could palliate HD-evoked erythrocyte impairment and anemia. Forty-three patients undergoing chronic HD were enrolled and received ERW administration for 6 month. We evaluated oxidative stress in blood and plasma, erythrocyte methemoglobin (metHb)/ferricyanide reductase activity, plasma metHb, and proinflammatory cytokines in the chronic HD patients without treatment (n=15) or with vitamin C (VC)- (n=15), vitamin E (VE)-coated dialyzer (n=15), or ERW treatment (n=15) during an HD course. The patients showed marked increases (15-fold) in blood reactive oxygen species, mostly H(2)O(2), after HD without any treatment. HD resulted in decreased plasma VC, total antioxidant status, and erythrocyte metHb/ferricyanide reductase activity and increased erythrocyte levels of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) and plasma metHb. Antioxidants treatment significantly palliated single HD course-induced oxidative stress, plasma and RBC PCOOH, and plasma metHb levels, and preserved erythrocyte metHb /ferricyanide reductase activity in an order VC>ERW>VE-coated dialyzer. However, ERW had no side effects of oxalate accumulation easily induced by VC. Six-month ERW treatment increased hematocrit and attenuated proinflammatory cytokines profile in the HD patients. In conclusion, ERW treatment administration is effective in palliating HD-evoked oxidative stress, as indicated by lipid peroxidation, hemolysis, and overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in HD patients.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Anemia / blood
  • Anemia / etiology
  • Anemia / prevention & control*
  • Antioxidants / administration & dosage
  • Ascorbic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Biomarkers
  • Cell Survival
  • Electrolysis
  • Erythrocytes / cytology*
  • Erythrocytes / metabolism
  • Female
  • Hematocrit
  • Hemodialysis Solutions / adverse effects
  • Hemodialysis Solutions / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy*
  • Male
  • Membranes, Artificial
  • Methemoglobin / metabolism
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Renal Dialysis / adverse effects
  • Renal Dialysis / methods*
  • Vitamin E / administration & dosage
  • Water / chemistry

Substances

  • Antioxidants
  • Biomarkers
  • Hemodialysis Solutions
  • Membranes, Artificial
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Water
  • Vitamin E
  • Methemoglobin
  • Ascorbic Acid