Dendritic cells (DCs) interface innate and adaptive immunity in nonlymphoid organs; however, the exact distribution and types of DC within the kidney are not known. We utilized CX3CR1GFP/+ mice to characterize the anatomy and phenotype of tissue-resident CX3CR1+ DCs within normal kidney. Laser-scanning confocal microscopy revealed an extensive, contiguous network of stellate-shaped CX3CR1+ DCs throughout the interstitial and mesangial spaces of the entire kidney. Intravital microscopy of the superficial cortex showed stationary interstitial CX3CR1+ DCs that continually probe the surrounding tissue environment through dendrite extensions. Flow cytometry of renal CX3CR1+ DCs showed significant coexpression of CD11c and F4/80, high major histocompatibility complex class II and FcR expression, and immature costimulatory but competent phagocytic ability indicative of tissue-resident, immature DCs ready to respond to environment cues. Thus, within the renal parenchyma, there exists little immunological privilege from the surveillance provided by renal CX3CR1+ DCs, a major constituent of the heterogeneous mononuclear phagocyte system populating normal kidney.