Analysis of oil sludge by direct plating and enrichment cultivation revealed 16 strains degrading aromatic compounds. After 30 days of cultivation in a continuous-flow microbial reactor, 17 more degrader strains were isolated. Genotyping of these strains showed that they were taxonomically diverse, and the range of strains degrading naphthalene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes depended on isolation methods. Direct plating yielded more aromatic degraders than enrichment cultivation. A microbial association different from that existing before the enrichment cultivation was obtained in the laboratory continuous-flow reactor.