This study evaluated the efficacy of a minimally invasive percutaneous fasciotomy in chronic exertional compartment syndrome and fascial hernias of the anterior lower leg (N = 118). Approximately one-third of symptomatic legs (n = 41) demonstrated fascial herniation and underwent fasciotomy without compartment pressure measurements via a small percutaneous incision using a fasciotome. Symptomatic legs with an intact fascia (n = 77) received similar operative treatment based on pressure measurements. Relief of symptoms was obtained in all but two patients. Postoperative complications included hematoma (9%), superficial peroneal nerve injury (2%), anterior ankle pain (5%), and recurrence (2%). Most patients (96%) reported unlimited exercise after a mean follow-up of 62 months. However, mild symptoms associated with nerve injury as well as ankle pain persisted (4%). A minimally invasive fasciotomy of the anterior lower leg harboring fascial hernias or a chronic exertional compartment syndrome is effective. Complications such as nerve injury and anterior ankle pain may be related to a too distally performed fasciotomy.