In the USA, colorectal cancer is the fourth most prevalent cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer. In 2006, 148,610 colorectal cancer cases are expected in the USA, with 55,170 deaths expected from this disease. After years of stagnation, the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer has recently made dramatic advances. The previous standard of care, 5-fluorouracil, is the now the backbone of combination regimens with oxaliplatin or irinotecan. The addition of biological agents, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, bevacizumab, and the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, cetuximab and panitumumab, have further enhanced the activity of conventional chemotherapy. These advances have increased the overall survival of advanced colorectal cancer patients, which was once 6 months with best supportive care, to over 2 years if all active agents are used in the course of the disease.