The uncharacterized Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Fcf1 and Fcf2, encoded by the ORFs YDR339c and YLR051c, respectively, were identified in a tandem affinity purification experiment of the known 40S factor Faf1p. Most of the proteins associated with TAP-Faf1p are trans-acting factors involved in pre-rRNA processing and 40S subunit biogenesis, in agreement with the previously observed role of Faf1p in 18S rRNA synthesis. Fcf1p and Fcf2p are both essential and localize to the nucleolus. Depletion of Fcf1p and Fcf2p leads to a decrease in synthesis of the 18S rRNA, resulting in a deficit in 40S ribosomal subunits. Northern analysis indicates inefficient processing of pre-rRNA at the A(0), A(1), and A(2) cleavage sites.