The X11/Mint family of adaptor proteins

Brain Res Rev. 2006 Sep;52(2):305-15. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresrev.2006.04.005. Epub 2006 Jun 9.


The X11 protein family are multidomain proteins composed of a conserved PTB domain and two C-terminal PDZ domains. They are involved in formation of multiprotein complexes and two of the family members, X11alpha and X11beta, are expressed primarily in neurones. Not much is known about the principal function of X11s, but through interactions with other neuronal proteins, they are believed to be involved in regulating neuronal signaling, trafficking and plasticity. Furthermore, they have been shown to modulate processing of APP and accumulation of Abeta, making them potential therapeutic targets for Alzheimer's disease. This article reviews the known interactions of the different X11s and their involvement in Alzheimer's disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / genetics
  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism*
  • Alzheimer Disease / genetics
  • Alzheimer Disease / metabolism*
  • Alzheimer Disease / physiopathology
  • Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Brain / pathology
  • Brain / physiopathology
  • Endopeptidases / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism*
  • Neurons / metabolism*
  • Neurons / pathology
  • Protein Transport / physiology
  • Signal Transduction / physiology


  • APBA1 protein, human
  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases
  • Endopeptidases
  • Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases
  • BACE1 protein, human