The rice 14-3-3 gene family and its involvement in responses to biotic and abiotic stress

DNA Res. 2006 Apr 30;13(2):53-63. doi: 10.1093/dnares/dsl001. Epub 2006 Apr 21.


14-3-3 proteins function as major regulators of primary metabolism and cellular signal transduction in plants. However, their involvement in plant defense and stress responses is largely unknown. In order to better address functions of the rice 14-3-3/GF14 proteins in defense and abiotic stress responses, we examined the rice GF14 family that comprises eight numbers. The phylogenetic comparison with the Arabidopsis 14-3-3 family revealed that the majority of rice GF14s might have evolved as an independent branch. At least four rice GF14 genes, GF14b, GF14c, GF14e and Gf14f were differentially regulated in the interactions of rice-Magnaporthe grisea and rice-Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, and the incompatible interactions stronger induced the genes than the compatible interactions. These GF14 genes were also induced by the defense compounds, benzothiadiazole, methyl jasmonate, ethephon and hydrogen peroxide. Similarly, they were differentially regulated by salinity, drought, wounding and abscisic acid. Tissue-specific analysis and expression of GF14-YFP fusions revealed that the four GF14 isoforms were expressed with tissue specificity and accumulated differentially in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Our current study provides fundamental information for the further investigation of the rice GF14 proteins.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 14-3-3 Proteins / genetics*
  • Genes, Plant
  • Multigene Family*
  • Oryza / genetics*
  • Oryza / physiology
  • Phylogeny
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction


  • 14-3-3 Proteins