Background: The safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment of arterial trauma using the Wallgraft Endoprosthesis was evaluated in a subgroup analysis of a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized registry trial with a historical control to surgical management. Endpoints were exclusion success at procedure and at 12-months, primary patency and freedom-from-bypass at 12-months, and major adverse events.
Methods: Sixty-two patients were treated for arterial trauma from October 1997 to June 2003. The anatomic locations of the injuries were: iliac (33), subclavian (18), and femoral (11) arteries. Indication for treatment was perforation/rupture (33), acute pseudoaneurysm (10), AV fistula (16), and dissection (3). Exclusion and patency were assessed using arteriography, duplex ultrasound, CT, or MRA at postprocedure and 12-months. Major adverse event and mortality rates were compared with surgical intervention of arterial trauma using literature based objective performance criteria.
Results: The Wallgraft Endoprosthesis achieved postprocedure exclusion in 58 of 62 cases (93.5%). One-year exclusion rates were 91.3% iliac, 90.0% subclavian, and 62.3% femoral. One-year primary patency rates were 76.4% iliac, 85.7% subclavian, and 85.7% femoral. Freedom-from-bypass was achieved in 74.3% iliac and 100% femoral and subclavian injuries. The most common adverse events were stenosis (4.8%) and occlusion (6.5% early, 1.6% late). There were no device- or procedure-related deaths. Analysis of the literature revealed the rates and severity of complications are less than those associated with surgical repair.
Conclusion: The Wallgraft Endoprosthesis for the treatment of traumatic arterial injuries offers a promising alternative to conventional operative repair with comparable patency and less major morbidity and mortality.