Immunohistochemistry for the histiocyte antigens CD68, L1, factor XIIIa, and S100 protein was performed on 19 cases of angiomatoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) and for keratin, leukocyte common antigen, factor VIII-related antigen, muramidase, and desmin on six of these cases. Nine of 19 cases expressed the histiocyte differentiation antigen CD68, and in three cases expression was seen in greater than 90% of cells. Of the 19 cases studied, three contained rare S100-positive tumor cells, and two expressed factor XIIIa within tumor cells. In three of the six cases, rare desmin-positive tumor cells were identified. The neoplastic cells did not express the other antigens studied. CD68 was not detected in any of 12 cases of storiform-pleomorphic and myxoid MFH or in any of 24 cases of normal tissues or nonfibrohistiocytic mesenchymal tumors except for granular cell tumors. These results indicate that either the cells of angiomatoid MFH differentiate along lines of a tissue macrophage or alternatively, and perhaps more likely, are mesenchymal tumors with a phenotypic alteration, paralleling an enhanced capacity for phagocytosis and acquisition of lysosomes. In either event, the immunophenotype contrasts with conventional MFH and provides another independent set of observations in support of a separation of angiomatoid from conventional MFH.