Formula-feeding reduces lactose digestive capacity in neonatal pigs

Br J Nutr. 2006 Jun;95(6):1075-81. doi: 10.1079/bjn20061743.


The intestine of newborn pigs develops rapidly during the first days postpartum. We investigated if feeding milk replacer (infant formula) as an alternative to colostrum has compromising effects on nutrient digestive function in the neonatal period. Nineteen piglets born at term were assigned to one of four treatments: (1) newborn controls; (2) natural suckling for 24 h; (3) tube-fed formula for 24 h; (4) tube-fed porcine colostrum for 24 h. All three fed groups showed significant increases in small-intestinal and colonic weights, villous heights and widths, maltase and aminopeptidase A activities, and decreases in dipeptidylpeptidase IV activity, relative to newborn pigs. Following oral boluses of mannitol, lactose or galactose, formula-fed pigs showed significantly reduced plasma levels of mannitol and galactose compared with colostrum-fed pigs. Activity of intestinal inducible NO synthase and plasma levels of cortisol were significantly increased, whereas intestinal constitutive NO synthase and alpha-tocopherol were decreased in formula-fed pigs compared with colostrum-fed pigs. Although formula-fed pigs only showed minor clinical signs of intestinal dysfunction and showed similar intestinal trophic responses just after birth, as those fed colostrum, lactose digestive capacity was markedly reduced. We conclude that formula-feeding may exert detrimental effects on intestinal function in neonates. Formula-induced subclinical malfunction of the gut in pigs born at term was associated with altered NO synthase activity and antioxidative capacity.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn / metabolism*
  • Antioxidants
  • Colon / anatomy & histology
  • Colon / metabolism*
  • Colostrum / metabolism
  • Digestion / physiology*
  • Female
  • Galactose / blood
  • Galactose / pharmacology
  • Hydrocortisone / blood
  • Infant Food*
  • Intestinal Absorption / physiology
  • Lactose / metabolism*
  • Lactose / pharmacology
  • Male
  • Mannitol / blood
  • Mannitol / pharmacology
  • Models, Animal
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • Swine / metabolism*
  • alpha-Tocopherol / blood


  • Antioxidants
  • Mannitol
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • alpha-Tocopherol
  • Lactose
  • Hydrocortisone
  • Galactose