Noncompliance with vision care guidelines in Latinos with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

Ophthalmology. 2006 Aug;113(8):1372-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.04.018. Epub 2006 Jun 12.


Objective: To determine the prevalence of and personal factors associated with noncompliance with American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines for vision care in a population-based sample of adult Latinos with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Design: Population-based cross-sectional study.

Participants: Eight hundred twenty-one Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) participants with a history of T2DM and a history of treatment for T2DM.

Methods: Detailed interviews, physical examinations, and dilated eye examinations were performed on all participants. Interviews assessed sociodemographic factors, history of diabetes and eye disease, and utilization of health and eye care services. All participants with a self-reported history and treatment of diabetes were asked about health and vision care utilization and diabetes self-care.

Main outcome measure: Compliance with ADA guidelines for vision care. Noncompliance was defined as having had no dilated eye examination in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify personal factors associated with noncompliance.

Results: Of 821 individuals who self-reported having T2DM and being on treatment for T2DM, 535 (65%) had not complied with ADA vision guidelines for persons with T2DM. When compared with those with T2DM who complied with ADA guidelines, noncompliers were more likely to be less educated (odds ratio [OR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2), to lack health insurance (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.7-3.7), to have had no routine physical examination in the 12 months before the LALES examination (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.5), and to have a glycosylated hemoglobin level > or = 9.0% (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6).

Conclusions: Because timely and appropriate vision care can delay the onset of ocular morbidity, visual impairment, and blindness associated with diabetic retinopathy, our data suggest the need to evaluate intervention programs aimed at a targeted group of Latinos with T2DM--those who have less than a high school education, lack health insurance, have had no routine physical examination in the previous year, and have poorly controlled T2DM.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / psychology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy*
  • Educational Status
  • Eye Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism
  • Hispanic or Latino / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Insurance, Health
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Compliance* / statistics & numerical data
  • Physical Examination
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic*
  • Vision Disorders / prevention & control


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A