Protein energy malnutrition is an important determinant of clinical outcome in older patients after hip fracture, but the effectiveness of nutritional support programs in routine clinical practice is controversial. We performed a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial to determine if nutritional supplementation decreased fracture-related complications in a selection of otherwise healthy patients with hip fractures. Patients were randomized to intervention or control groups. The control group (n = 40) was given ordinary hospital food and beverage. The intervention group (n = 40) also was administered a 1000 kcal daily intravenous supplement for 3 days, followed by a 400 kcal oral nutritional supplement for 7 days. We recorded daily fluid and energy intake during the first 10 days of hospitalization and fracture-related complications up to 4 months. The total fluid and energy intake in the intervention group neared optimal levels. The control group received 54% and 64% of optimal energy and fluid intake, respectively. The risk of fracture- related complications was greater in the control group (70%) than in the intervention group (15%). Four patients in the control group died within 120 days postoperatively. The comprehensive balanced nutrition supplement resulted in lower complication rates and mortality at 120 days postoperatively.