Increased oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and ischemia-reperfusion. Although several sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be involved, a family of NADPH oxidases appears to be especially important for redox signaling and may be amenable to specific therapeutic targeting. These include the prototypic Nox2 isoform-based NADPH oxidase, which was first characterized in neutrophils, as well as other NADPH oxidases such as Nox1 and Nox4. These Nox isoforms are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific fashion, are subject to independent activation and regulation, and may subserve distinct functions. This article reviews the potential roles of NADPH oxidases in both cardiovascular physiological processes (such as the regulation of vascular tone and oxygen sensing) and pathophysiological processes such as endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, hypertrophy, apoptosis, migration, angiogenesis, and vascular and cardiac remodeling. The complexity of regulation of NADPH oxidases in these conditions may provide the possibility of targeted therapeutic manipulation in a cell-, tissue- and/or pathway-specific manner at appropriate points in the disease process.