Epidemiologic characteristics of rhinitis in Turkish children: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase 2

Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2006 Jun;17(4):269-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2006.00407.x.


Rhinitis is a common problem with important comorbidities. In order to search the association between rhinitis, allergic phenotypes and other risk factors in Turkish children, a parental questionnaire about allergic diseases and risk factors, and skin prick test (SPT) with 13 inhalant allergens were performed in a population-based sample of 2774 children aged 9-11 yr. Bronchoprovocation testing with hypertonic saline (HS)and total IgE analysis were limited to a subsample of 350 children. Rhinitis was defined as a problem with sneezing, rhinorrhea, or nasal congestion when the child did not have a viral respiratory infection. The prevalences of ever rhinitis, current (last 12 months) rhinitis (CR), and ever hay fever were 36.3%, 30.6%, and 8.3%, respectively. SPT positivity rate was 20.4% among children with CR. Current wheezing and flexural dermatitis were significantly associated with CR. CR significantly increased the risk of asthma among both atopic and non-atopic subjects [odds ratio (OR), 3.98; 95% CI, 1.81-8.76; and OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.82-4.26, respectively]. The association between CR and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) was not significant. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed family atopy (OR=2.25, 95% CI=1.79-2.83, p<0.001), current indoor heating with gas stove (OR=1.78, 95% CI=1.18-2.64, p=0.006) and dampness/molds at home during the first year of life (OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.25-2.31, p=0.001) as significant risk factors for CR. Turkish school children showed a high prevalence of rhinitis with a preponderance of non-atopics. The highly significant association between rhinitis and asthma independent of atopic sensitization emphasize the importance of non-atopic forms of rhinitis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Asthma / epidemiology*
  • Bronchial Provocation Tests
  • Child
  • Comorbidity
  • Dermatitis, Atopic / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity / epidemiology*
  • Immunoglobulin E / blood
  • Odds Ratio
  • Prevalence
  • Rhinitis / epidemiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Skin Tests
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Turkey / epidemiology


  • Immunoglobulin E