Background: In women with "idiopathic" fecal incontinence (FI), consensus guidelines recommend anal sphincter imaging and surgical repair, when feasible, of anal sphincter defects believed to cause FI. However, the relative contributions of obstetric trauma and bowel symptoms to FI in the community are unknown.
Methods: To assess risk factors for FI during the past year, a previously validated questionnaire was mailed to an age-stratified random sample of 5,300 women residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota.
Results: Altogether, 2,800 women (53%) responded. The risk of fecal incontinence increased with age (odds ratio [OR] per decade 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4). The risk of fecal incontinence was higher among women with rectal urgency (OR 8.3, 95% CI 4.8-14.3) whether or not they also had other bowel disturbances (i.e., constipation, diarrhea, or abdominal pain) or had a vaginal delivery with forceps or stitches (OR 9.0, 95% CI 5.6-14.4). Among women with FI, rectal urgency and age were also risk factors for symptom severity. In contrast, obstetric risk factors for anorectal trauma did not increase the risk for FI. The risk for FI was not significantly different among women with cesarean section, vaginal delivery with or without forceps or stitches, or anorectal surgery, compared with nulliparous women without any of these risk factors.
Conclusions: Rectal urgency rather than obstetric injury is the main risk factor for FI in women. These observations reinforce the importance of behavioral, dietary, and pharmacological measures to ameliorate bowel disturbances before anal imaging in women with "idiopathic" FI.