Urinary C-peptide excretion in free-living healthy children is related to dietary carbohydrate intake but not to the dietary glycemic index

J Nutr. 2006 Jul;136(7):1828-33. doi: 10.1093/jn/136.7.1828.


This study first examined whether urinary C-peptide (UCP), stored at -20 degrees C, remains stable over the long term, and second, whether the dietary glycemic index (GI) and the glycemic load (GL: GI x g carbohydrates) are related to the 24-h UCP excretion of healthy children. Participants in the Dortmund Nutrition and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study with 24-h urine collections and a simultaneously completed weighed dietary record were included. From these, 3 comparable groups of 7- to 8-y-old children (n = 40 each) from 1990, 1996, and 2002 were randomly selected (total n = 120). C-peptide was measured with a 1-site ELISA. A GI value was assigned to all recorded foods containing carbohydrates (CHO). Statistical equivalence tests corroborated that UCP excretion in the 3 sampling periods was equivalent when corrected for body weight and protein intake (P < 0.05). UCP excretion was associated with the GL after adjustment for body weight, protein, and fiber intake [mean UCP (95% CI) in GL tertiles 1-3: 6.19 (5.37, 7.14) vs. 7.82 (6.77, 9.02) vs. 7.76 (6.71, 8.97) nmol/d, P for difference 0.04]. GI was not significantly related to UCP excretion [adjusted means (95% CI): 7.27 (6.28, 8.41) vs. 6.51 (5.64, 7.51) vs. 7.94 (6.86, 9.18), P for difference 0.2]. In conclusion, UCP retrospectively measured with a 1-site ELISA remained stable for up to 12 y (from 1990 until 2002). The observed positive relation of UCP with GL appears to result largely from its association with the amount of CHO, whereas dietary GI may be relevant only at higher intake levels.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • C-Peptide / urine*
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet Records
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / metabolism
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / pharmacology*
  • Glycemic Index*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Secretion
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Specimen Handling / methods


  • C-Peptide
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Insulin