HIV incidence among women of reproductive age in Malawi and Zimbabwe

Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Nov;33(11):646-51. doi: 10.1097/01.olq.0000223283.27142.9f.


Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of HIV-1.

Goal: The goal of this study was to inform HIV prevention and vaccine trials by conducting a multisite study in Malawi and Zimbabwe.

Study design: Women of reproductive age were enrolled in a prospective study. They received 5 intensive HIV counseling and condom promotion sessions over 2 months. Subsequently, HIV-negative women completed quarterly follow-up visits. HIV incidence rates and predictors of HIV acquisition were assessed.

Results: A total of 2016 HIV-negative women were enrolled in the condom promotion and counseling phase of the study. Of these, 1679 were tested for HIV during follow up and 113 women seroconverted, resulting in an overall HIV incidence rate of 4.7 per 100 women-years (95% confidence interval = 3.8-5.6). Incidence rates were similar across sites. The major predictors of HIV acquisition were young age, presence of sexually transmitted infections, being unmarried, and higher educational level.

Conclusion: The incidence of HIV continues to be high among women in both Malawi and Zimbabwe despite counseling and condom promotion.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / blood
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • HIV Infections / etiology
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control*
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • HIV-1 / isolation & purification*
  • Health Education*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Malawi / epidemiology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Reproduction
  • Risk Factors
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / blood
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / epidemiology
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / etiology
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / prevention & control
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / virology
  • Zimbabwe / epidemiology