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Comparative Study
, 281 (33), 23589-97

GPR92 as a New G12/13- And Gq-coupled Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor That Increases cAMP, LPA5

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Comparative Study

GPR92 as a New G12/13- And Gq-coupled Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor That Increases cAMP, LPA5

Chang-Wook Lee et al. J Biol Chem.

Abstract

The signaling effects of lysophospholipids such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are mediated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). There are currently four LPA receptors known as LPA(1-4). Genetic deletion studies have identified essential biological functions for LPA receptors in mice. However, these studies have also revealed phenotypes consistent with the existence of as yet unidentified receptors. Toward identifying new LPA receptors, we have screened collections of GPCR cDNAs using reverse transfection and cell-based assays. Here we report an interim result of one screen to identify receptors that produced LPA-dependent changes in cell shape: the orphan receptor GPR92 has properties of a new LPA receptor. Sequence analyses of human GPR92 and its mouse homolog have approximately 35% amino acid identity with LPA4/GPR23. The same cell-based approaches that were used to identify and/or characterize LPA(1-4), particularly heterologous expression in B103 cells or RH7777 cells, were utilized and compared with known LPA receptors. Retroviral-mediated expression of epitope-tagged receptors was further combined with G protein minigenes and pharmacological intervention, along with calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. LPA-dependent receptor internalization following exposure to LPA but not related lysophospholipids was observed. Furthermore, LPA induced concentration-dependent activation of G(12/13) and G(q) and increased cAMP levels. Specific [3H]LPA binding was detected in cell membranes heterologously expressing GPR92 but not control membranes. Northern blot and reverse transcriptase-PCR studies indicated a broad low level of expression in many tissues including embryonic brain and enrichment in small intestine and sensory dorsal root ganglia, as well as embryonic stem cells. These results support GPR92 as a fifth LPA receptor, LPA5, which likely has distinct physiological functions in view of its expression pattern.

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