Simian virus 40 late proteins possess lytic properties that render them capable of permeabilizing cellular membranes

J Virol. 2006 Jul;80(13):6575-87. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00347-06.


Many nonenveloped viruses have evolved an infectious cycle that culminates in the lysis or permeabilization of the host to enable viral release. How these viruses initiate the lytic event is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that the simian virus 40 progeny accumulated at the nuclear envelope prior to the permeabilization of the nuclear, endoplasmic reticulum, and plasma membranes at a time which corresponded with the release of the progeny. The permeabilization of these cellular membranes temporally correlated with late protein expression and was not observed upon the inhibition of their synthesis. To address whether one or more of the late proteins possessed an inherent capacity to induce membrane permeabilization, we examined the permeability of Escherichia coli that separately expressed the late proteins. VP2 and VP3, but not VP1, caused the permeabilization of bacterial membranes. Additionally, VP3 expression resulted in bacterial cell lysis. These findings demonstrate that VP3 possesses an inherent lytic property that is independent of eukaryotic signaling or cell death pathways.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Capsid Proteins / genetics
  • Capsid Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cell Death
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Membrane Permeability* / genetics
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism*
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum / virology
  • Escherichia coli / genetics
  • Escherichia coli / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Viral / physiology
  • Nuclear Envelope / metabolism*
  • Nuclear Envelope / virology
  • Permeability
  • Protein Biosynthesis / physiology
  • Simian virus 40 / genetics
  • Simian virus 40 / metabolism*
  • Virus Replication / physiology*


  • Capsid Proteins
  • VP3 protein, Simian virus 40