Fungi and bacteria co-inhabit a wide variety of environments, from soils and food products to plants and mammals. Interactions between bacteria and fungi can have dramatic effects on the survival, colonization and pathogenesis of these organisms. There are instances where bacteria provide fungi with compounds that enhance the production of fungal virulence determinants. Other bacteria produce factors that are likely to inhibit pathogenesis by repressing fungal filamentation. Furthermore, mixed bacterial-fungal biofilms can have properties that are distinct from their single-species counterparts. Clinical studies, in combination with in vitro model systems, are necessary to understand how bacterial-fungal interactions impact human health.