We here report nine liver cirrhosis (LC) patients that underwent autologous bone marrow cell infusion (ABMI) from the peripheral vein. Subjects were patients with LC with total bilirubin of less than 3.0 mg/dl, platelet count of more than 5 (10(10)/l), and no viable hepatocellular carcinoma on diagnostic imaging. Autologous bone marrow (BM; 400 ml) was isolated from the ilium under general anesthesia. Mononuclear cells (MNCs) were separated by cell washing and were infused via the peripheral vein. MNC characteristics were confirmed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis (CD34, CD45, and c-kit). After ABMI therapy, liver function was monitored by blood examination for 24 weeks. From 400 ml of BM, we obtained 7.81 +/- 0.98 x 10(9) MNCs. After washing, 5.20 +/- 0.63 x 10(9) MNCs were infused into patients with LC. Significant improvements in serum albumin levels and total protein were observed at 24 weeks after ABMI therapy (p < .05). Significantly improved Child-Pugh scores were seen at 4 and 24 weeks (p < .05). alpha-Fetoprotein and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in liver biopsy tissue was significantly elevated after ABMI therapy (p < .05). No major adverse effects were noted. In conclusion, ABMI therapy should be considered as a novel treatment for patients with decompensated LC.