Pili in gram-positive pathogens

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2006 Jul;4(7):509-19. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro1443.


Most bacterial pathogens have long filamentous structures known as pili or fimbriae extending from their surface. These structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of the bacteria to host tissues during colonization. In gram-negative bacteria, pili are typically formed by non-covalent interactions between pilin subunits. By contrast, the recently discovered pili in gram-positive pathogens are formed by covalent polymerization of adhesive pilin subunits. Evidence from studies of pili in the three principal streptococcal pathogens of humans indicates that the genes that encode the pilin subunits and the enzymes that are required for the assembly of these subunits into pili have been acquired en bloc by the horizontal transfer of a pathogenicity island.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Adhesion
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Fimbriae Proteins / genetics
  • Fimbriae, Bacterial / genetics*
  • Fimbriae, Bacterial / metabolism*
  • Fimbriae, Bacterial / ultrastructure
  • Gene Transfer, Horizontal
  • Genomic Islands
  • Gram-Positive Bacteria / pathogenicity
  • Gram-Positive Bacteria / physiology*
  • Gram-Positive Bacteria / ultrastructure
  • Models, Biological
  • Protein Subunits / genetics


  • Protein Subunits
  • Fimbriae Proteins