Objective: To investigate the protective factors and risk factors of nosocomial infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among health care workers (HCWs), and thus provide the scientific basis for prevention and control of nosocomial infection.
Methods: With the case-control study, a standardized questionnaire was used for data collection in three general hospitals where nosocomial infection had occurred. Univariate analysis was done at first. All concerned factors about SARS infection were scanned by using Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test one by one, and determined as to whether they were risk factors or protective factors according to odd ratio (OR) score. Then, multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to re-analyze the picked-out factors for finding out which factors played independent roles.
Results: Twenty-two factors (nineteen protective factors and three risk factors), among the total fifty-six factors, were significantly associated with SARS infection. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression revealed that factors such as double exposure suits (OR=0.053), education (OR=0.072), gloves (OR=0.102), hands sterilized by iodine (OR=0.231), room air ventilation (OR=0.32), were significantly protective; conversely, tracheal intubation (OR=30.793) was a significant risk factor.
Conclusion: Strict defense and antisepsis measures were pivotal in preventing SARS infection among high-risk medical personnel. Education about associated knowledge and effective air ventilation were also important factors.