We have analysed fifteen classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency families from throughout Southern Ireland and report the serologically defined HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-Cw, HLA-DR, C4A and C4B polymorphisms that characterize the inferred disease haplotypes. Additionally, we have used a combination of short and long range restriction mapping procedures in order to characterize the CYP21/C4 gene organization associated with individual serologically defined haplotypes. The results obtained indicate that disease haplotypes are characterized by a high frequency (33%) of CYP21B gene deletion and 8 out of 10 such deletion haplotypes are represented by the extended haplotype HLA-DR1, C4BQo, C4A3, HLA-B40(w60), HLA-Cw3, HLA-A3. Large scale length polymorphism in the CYP21/C4 gene cluster was found to conform strictly to a variable number of tandem repeats model with 4 alleles being detected. Disease haplotypes in which defective CYP21B gene expression is inferred to result from pathological point mutations show extensive diversity of associated HLA markers and include two examples of the extended HLA haplotype HLA-DR3, B8, Cw7, A1 haplotype, which has previously been reported to be negatively associated with 21-hydroxylase deficiency. One unusual disease haplotype has two CYP21 + C4 units, both of which appear to contain CYP21B-like genes.