Cholesterol feeding in miniature swine resulted in a hypercholesterolemia with a distinctive hyperlipoproteinemia and the subsequent development of atherosclerosis. Alterations in the type and distribution of plasma lipoproteins induced by cholesterol feeding were as follows: (a) the occurrence of beta-migrating lipoproteins (B-VLDL) as well as very low density lipoproteins in the d less than 1.006 ultracentrifugal fraction; (b) an increased prominence of the intermediate lipoproteins (d = 1.006-1.02); (c) an increased prominence of low density lipoproteins; and (d) the occurrence of a distinctive lipoprotein with alpha mobility which was referred to as HDLc (cholesterol induced). Characterization of the various plasma lipoproteins included chemical composition, size by electron microscopy, and apoprotein content. The B-VLDL resembled the beta-migrating lipoproteins of human Type III hyperlipoproteinemia and contained a prominent protein equivalent to the arginine-rich apoprotein in addition to the B apoprotein, apo-A-I, and the fast-migrating apoproteins (apo-C). The HDLc were rich in cholesterol, ranged in size from 100 to 240 A in diameter, and contained the arginine-rich apoprotein and apo-A0I but lacked the B apoprotein. The arginine-rich apoproteins isolated from B-VLDL and HDLc by gel chromatography were similar in amino acid analyses, with glutamic acid as their amino-terminal residue. The occurrence of a spectrum of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins which contained the arginine-rich apoprotein with the occurrence of accelerated atherosclerosis suggested an interesting, although speculative, association.