Hunter disease (mucopolysaccharidosis type II) associated with unbalanced inactivation of the X chromosomes in a karyotypically normal girl

Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Aug;49(2):289-97.


The mechanism of profound generalized iduronate sulfatase (IDS) deficiency in a developmentally delayed female with clinical Hunter syndrome was studied. Methylation-sensitive RFLP analysis of DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes from the patient, using MspI/HpaII digestion and probing with M27 beta, showed that the paternal allele was resistant to HpaII digestion (i.e., was methylated) while the maternal allele was digested (i.e., was hypomethylated), indicating marked imbalance of X-chromosome inactivation in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patient. Similar studies on DNA from maternal lymphocytes showed random X-chromosome inactivation. Among a total of 40 independent maternal fibroblast clones isolated by dilution plating and analyzed for IDS activity, no IDS- clone was found. Somatic cell hybrid clones containing at least one active human X chromosome were produced by fusion of patient fibroblasts with Hprt- hamster fibroblasts (RJK88) and grown in HAT-ouabain medium. Methylation-sensitive RFLP analysis of DNA from the hybrids showed that of the 22 clones that retained the DXS255 locus (M27 beta), all contained the paternal allele in the methylated (active) form. No clone was isolated containing only the maternal X chromosome, and in no case was the maternal allele hypermethylated. We postulate from these studies that the patient has MPS II as a result of a mutation resulting in both the disruption of the IDS locus on her paternal X chromosome and unbalanced inactivation of the nonmutant maternal X chromosome.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Child
  • Cricetinae
  • Cricetulus
  • DNA Restriction Enzymes
  • Female
  • Genetic Complementation Test
  • Humans
  • Hybrid Cells / cytology
  • Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase / genetics
  • Iduronate Sulfatase / genetics*
  • Karyotyping
  • Male
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis I / genetics*
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis I / pathology
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis II*
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length*
  • Sex Chromosome Aberrations*
  • Skin / pathology
  • X Chromosome*


  • Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase
  • DNA Restriction Enzymes
  • Iduronate Sulfatase