The role of the amygdaloid complex in the central regulation of the cardiovascular system was studied in unanesthetized, unrestrained rat. The injection of carbachol into the amygdaloid complex elicited a pressor response, whereas the injection of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine into the same area caused no significant cardiovascular changes. The greatest pressor response was obtained when carbachol was injected into the central nucleus. Bradycardia and tachycardia occurred when injection of carbachol was made into dorso-central and medio-ventral parts of the amygdaloid complex, respectively. Concomitant with cardiovascular responses, the injection of carbachol into the amygdaloid complex produced behavioral changes including immobilization, body shaking, searching and rearing. The pressor response and bradycardia were suppressed by prior local injection into the amygdaloid complex of atropine but not hexamethonium. These results suggest that the cholinergic system mediated by activation of muscarinic receptors in the amygdaloid complex may play a role in the control of cardiovascular and autonomic function.