Acrylamide (AA) is carcinogenic in animals and classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as probably carcinogenic in humans. Regarding the AA contents of food the diet significantly contributes to the overall AA burden of the general population. However, it is unclear to which degree the diet, apart from smoking, contributes to the internal AA exposure. Therefore the influence of an AA-free diet on the excretion of urinary mercapturic acid metabolites derived from AA in three healthy volunteers fasting for 48 h was examined. Urinary AA mercapturic acid metabolites were considerably reduced after 48 h of fasting. The levels were even well below the median level in non-smokers. This confirms that the diet is the main source of environmental AA exposure in humans, apart from smoking. Other possible AA sources could be of minor quantitative importance only.