Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on pooled data from multiple populations (pooled analysis) provides a means for evaluating, as a whole, evidence for existence of a QTL from different studies and examining differences in gene effect of a QTL among different populations. Objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a method for pooled analysis and (2) conduct pooled analysis on data from two soybean mapping populations. Least square interval mapping was extended for pooled analysis by inclusion of populations and cofactor markers as indicator variables and covariate variables separately in the multiple linear models. The general linear test approach was applied for detecting a QTL. Single population-based and pooled analyses were conducted on data from two F(2:3) mapping populations, Hamilton (susceptible) x PI 90763 (resistant) and Magellan (susceptible) x PI 404198A (resistant), for resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN) in soybean. It was demonstrated that where a QTL was shared among populations, pooled analysis showed increased LOD values on the QTL candidate region over single population analyses. Where a QTL was not shared among populations, however, the pooled analysis showed decreased LOD values on the QTL candidate region over single population analyses. Pooled analysis on data from genetically similar populations may have higher power of QTL detection than single population-based analyses. QTLs were identified by pooled analysis on linkage groups (LGs) G, B1 and J for resistance to SCN race 2 whereas QTLs on LGs G, B1 and E for resistance to SCN race 5 in soybean PI 90763 and PI 404198A. QTLs on LG G and B1 were identified in both PI 90763 and PI 404198A whereas QTLs on LG E and J were identified in PI 90763 only. QTLs on LGs G and B1 for resistance to race 2 may be the same or closely linked with QTLs on LG G and B1 for resistance to race 5, respectively. It was further demonstrated that QTLs on G and B1 carried by PI 90763 were not significantly different in gene effect from QTLs on LGs G and B1 in PI 404198A, respectively.