Cytokines and chemokines contribute to the pathogenesis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Using a multiplex immunochemiluminescence ELISA, we measured 8 Th1/Th2 cytokines and 18 chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of 17 ADEM patients, 14 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and 7 healthy controls (HCs). Relative to HCs, ADEM patients had significantly high mean CSF concentrations of chemokines with attractant/activating properties towards neutrophils (CXCL1 and CXCL7), monocytes/T cells (CCL3 and CCL5), Th1 cells (CXCL10), and Th2 cells (CCL1, CCL22, and CCL17). Mean CSF concentrations of CXCL7, CCL1, CCL22, and CCL17 were higher in ADEM than in MS, whereas those of CCL11 were lower in MS than in ADEM and HCs. CSF pleocytosis correlated with CSF concentrations of CXCL1, CXCL10, CCL1, CCL17, and CCL22. Most of the functionally homologous chemokines correlated with each other. CSF Th1/Th2 cytokines were not detectable in most samples. Their mean concentrations did not differ in the three groups, and the same held for serum cytokines and chemokines. Our data suggest that the upregulation of chemokines active on neutrophils and Th2 cells differentiates ADEM from MS inflammation, and that both Th1 and Th2 chemokines might be produced in ADEM. Chemokines upregulated in ADEM could become CSF biomarkers after a posteriori evaluations in unselected case series.