IL-17 is an inflammatory cytokine produced primarily by a unique lineage of CD4 T cells that plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune diseases. IL-17RA is a ubiquitously expressed receptor that is essential for IL-17 biologic activity. Despite widespread receptor expression, the activity of IL-17 is most classically defined by its ability to induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and other mediators by stromal cells. The lack of IL-17 responsiveness in mouse stromal cells genetically deficient in IL-17RA is poorly complemented by human IL-17RA, suggesting the presence of an obligate ancillary component whose activity is species specific. This component is IL-17RC, a distinct member of the IL-17R family. Thus, the biologic activity of IL-17 is dependent on a complex composed of IL-17RA and IL-17RC, suggesting a new paradigm for understanding the interactions between the expanded family of IL-17 ligands and their receptors.