Stable isotope and trace element profiling combined with classification models to differentiate geographic growing origin for three fruits: effects of subregion and variety

J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Jun 28;54(13):4506-16. doi: 10.1021/jf0600455.


Classifications of geographic growing origin of three fresh fruits combining elemental profiles with various modeling approaches were determined. Elemental analysis (Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, V, and Zn) of strawberry, blueberry, and pear samples was performed using inductively coupled plasma argon atomic emission spectrometer. Bulk stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses in pear were performed using mass spectrometry as an alternative fingerprinting technique. Each fruit, strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa), blueberry (Vaccinium caesariense/corymbosum), and pear (Pyrus communis), was analyzed from two growing regions: Oregon vs Mexico, Chile, and Argentina, respectively. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were used for data visualization. The data were modeled using linear discriminant function, quadratic discriminant function, neural network, genetic neural network, and hierarchical tree models with successful classification ranging from 70 to 100% depending on commodity and model. Effects of Oregon subregional and variety classification were investigated with similar success rates.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Argentina
  • Blueberry Plants / chemistry
  • Blueberry Plants / growth & development
  • Chile
  • Environment*
  • Fragaria / chemistry
  • Fragaria / growth & development
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Fruit / classification*
  • Fruit / growth & development*
  • Isotopes / analysis*
  • Mexico
  • Oregon
  • Pyrus / chemistry
  • Pyrus / growth & development
  • Trace Elements / analysis*


  • Isotopes
  • Trace Elements