The study aimed to investigate whether polymorphisms in genes of the EGFR signaling pathway are associated with clinical outcome in advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) patients treated with single-agent Cetuximab. Polymorphisms of interest in the EGFR pathway include: cyclin D1 (CCND1) A870G, cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) G-765C, epidermal growth factor (EGF) A61G, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) codon R497 K, EGFR CA dinucleotide repeat in intron 1, interleukin (IL)-8 T-251A and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C936 T gene polymorphisms. Thirty-nine metastatic CRC patients were enrolled in the IMCL-0144 trial and treated with single-agent Cetuximab. Using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method, gene polymorphisms of CCND1, COX-2, EGF, EGFR, IL-8 and VEGF were assessed from genomic DNA extracted from blood samples. A significant association was found between the CCND1 A870G polymorphism and overall survival in our 39 CRC subjects. Patients with the AA homozygous genotype survived for a median of 2.3 months [95% confidence interval (CI)=2.1-5.7], whereas those with any G allele (AG, GG genotype) survived for a median of 8.7 months (95% CI=4.4-13.5) (P=0.019, log-rank test). When we analysed the cyclin D1 and EGF polymorphisms together, patients with favourable genotypes (EGF any A allele and CCND1 any G allele) showed a median survival time of 12 months (95% CI=4.8-15.2), whereas patients with any two unfavourable genotypes (EGF GG or CCND1 AA) showed a median survived time of 4.4 months (95% CI=2.1-5.7) (P=0.004, log-rank test). The findings of this pilot study suggest that the cyclin D1 A870G and the EGF A61G polymorphisms may be useful molecular markers for predicting clinical outcome in CRC patients treated with single-agent Cetuximab.