Prevalence of complications in children with chronic kidney disease according to KDOQI

Kidney Int. 2006 Aug;70(3):585-90. doi: 10.1038/ Epub 2006 Jun 21.


The Kidney Disease Outcome and Quality Initiative (KDOQI) Group recommended guidelines for the monitoring and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in 2002. These recommendations were based on the prevalence of known complications as seen in adults. In children, the exact prevalence of these complications is unknown. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study of 366 patients with CKD in a single center to analyze the prevalence of these complications across all stages of kidney disease. Patients were categorized to their KDOQI stage of CKD according to their estimated renal function as determined from serum cystatin C. Fifty seven percent of patients had CKD stage 1, 29.0% stage 2, 10.4% stage 3 and 4.1% stages 4+5. Uropathies (31%) were the most prevalent causes of CKD. Glomerular disease accounted for 27%. The overall prevalence of complications was as follows: hypertension 70.2%, anemia 36.6%, proteinuria 11.5%, and metabolic bone disease 16.9%. Metabolic bone disease and anemia occurred frequently, even with a glomerular filtration rate >60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Growth failure (11.5%) was also common and is not a component of the KDOQI guidelines for CKD in children. The prevalence of all complications increased with worsening stage of kidney disease (all P-values significant). In summary, this study supports the KDOQI guidelines in defining and staging CKD in children. This study also highlights the differences in the causes and complications that occur in CKD between adults and pediatrics. We recommend modification of the KDOQI guidelines for children to reflect the differences described in this paper.

MeSH terms

  • Acidosis / epidemiology
  • Acidosis / etiology
  • Adolescent
  • Anemia / epidemiology
  • Anemia / etiology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cystatin C
  • Cystatins / blood
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Growth Disorders / epidemiology
  • Growth Disorders / etiology
  • Humans
  • Hyperkalemia / epidemiology
  • Hyperkalemia / etiology
  • Hypertension, Renal / epidemiology
  • Hypertension, Renal / etiology
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Proteinuria / epidemiology
  • Proteinuria / etiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology*


  • CST3 protein, human
  • Cystatin C
  • Cystatins