Rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhea in infants. In developed countries, this infection leads to considerable morbidity with a high number of hospitalizations and medical interventions in the winter season, giving rise to substantial medical and social costs. In developing countries, rotavirus is a major cause of mortality in infants due to dehydration, with an estimated 600.000 deaths or more per year worldwide. A vaccine that is easy administrated, safe and with high efficacy would be the ideal means to reduce the burden of this disease and its high economic and social cost and to decrease the number of deaths in low-income countries. Recently, the results of two well-designed clinical trials with a large number of subjects have been reported. Both studies, which used different vaccines, reported high efficacy in the prevention of severe gastroenteritis and hospitalizations caused by rotavirus. When these vaccines become available in Europe, a reduction in hospitalizations, medical consultations, and days of work lost can be expected.