Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) under shear stress may alter their gene expression patterns to adapt to a new hemodynamic environment. Their plasticity may play an important role in vascular development, healing, and remodeling as well as vascular lesion formation under abnormal environmental conditions. A mouse vascular SMC line (P53LMACO1) cultured under shear stress significantly increased the mRNA levels of endothelial cell markers including Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and VE-cadherin, while significantly decreasing the mRNA levels of SMC markers including alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), calponin-1, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC), and transgelin as compared to static control cells. Protein levels of PECAM-1 and vWF were significantly increased, while protein levels of alpha-SMA were substantially decreased in the shear stress-cultured cells. In addition, shear stress-cultured cells showed an enhanced capability to form capillary-like structures on Matrigel. Thus, shear stress may promote endothelial cell transdifferentiation from SMCs.