Glutathione peroxidase 2, the major cigarette smoke-inducible isoform of GPX in lungs, is regulated by Nrf2

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006 Dec;35(6):639-50. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2005-0325OC. Epub 2006 Jun 22.

Abstract

Disruption of NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2), a redox-sensitive basic leucine zipper transcription factor, causes early-onset and more severe emphysema due to chronic cigarette smoke. Nrf2 determines the susceptibility of lungs to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice through the transcriptional induction of numerous antioxidant genes. The lungs of Nrf2-/- mice have higher oxidative stress as evident from the increased levels of lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) and oxidative DNA damage (7,8-dihydro-8-Oxo-2'deoxyguanosine) in response to cigarette smoke. Glutathione peroxidases (GPX) are the primary antioxidant enzymes that scavenge hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides. Among the five GPX isoforms, expression of GPX2 was significantly induced at both mRNA and protein levels in the lungs of Nrf2+/+ mice, in response to cigarette smoke. Activation of Nrf2 by specific knock down of the cytosolic inhibitor of Nrf2, Keap1, by small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) upregulated the expression of GPx2, whereas Nrf2 siRNA down-regulated the expression of GPX2 in lung epithelial cells. An ARE sequence located in the 5' promoter-flanking region of exon 1 that is highly conserved between mouse, rat, and human was identified. Mutation of this ARE core sequence completely abolished the activity of promoter-reporter gene construct. The binding of Nrf2 to the GPX2 antioxidant response element was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipation, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and site-directed mutagenesis. This study shows that GPX2 is the major oxidative stress-inducible cellular GPX isoform in the lungs, and that its basal as well as inducible expression is dependent on Nrf2.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Line
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / drug effects
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / genetics
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1
  • Lung / drug effects*
  • Lung / metabolism*
  • Lung / pathology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2 / genetics
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2 / metabolism*
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Protein Binding
  • RNA Interference
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • RNA, Small Interfering / genetics
  • RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Response Elements / genetics
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Smoke / adverse effects*
  • Tobacco*
  • Transcription, Genetic / drug effects
  • Transfection

Substances

  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • KEAP1 protein, human
  • Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1
  • NF-E2-Related Factor 2
  • Nfe2l2 protein, mouse
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • RNA, Small Interfering
  • Smoke
  • Gpx2 protein, mouse
  • Glutathione Peroxidase