Bacterial vectors may offer many advantages over other antigen delivery systems for cancer vaccines. We engineered a Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain to deliver the NY-ESO-1 tumor antigen (S. typhimurium-NY-ESO-1) through a type III protein secretion system. The S. typhimurium-NY-ESO-1 construct elicited NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood lymphocytes of cancer patients in vitro. Oral administration of S. typhimurium-NY-ESO-1 to mice resulted in the regression of established NY-ESO-1-expressing tumors. Intratumoral inoculation of S. typhimurium-NY-ESO-1 to NY-ESO-1-negative tumors resulted in delivery of antigen in vivo and led to tumor regression in the presence of preexisting NY-ESO-1-specific CD8+ T cells. Specific T cell responses against at least 2 unrelated tumor antigens not contained in the vaccine were observed, demonstrating epitope spreading. We propose that antigen delivery through the S. typhimurium type III secretion system is a promising novel strategy for cancer vaccine development.