We investigated the putative benefits of simultaneous teleradiotherapy and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) 125I monoclonal antibody (MAb) 425 radioimmunotherapy, when applied after neurosurgery in high-grade gliomas, over teleradiotherapy alone. In comparison to previous studies which have reported good results with this type of radioimmunotherapy, we advanced the adjuvant radioimmunotherapy step, that is, gave it during, not after, teleradiotherapy. The randomized prospective study examined two groups: simultaneous postoperative teleradiotherapy and radioimmunotherapy (TRT + RIT; eight patients) versus teleradiotherapy alone (TRT; 10 patients). Patients who after primary operation of grade III (6 cases) or IV glioma (12 cases), showed no or less than 2 mL of remnant tumor on post-operative magnetic resonance (MR) study and were not treated postoperatively by chemotherapy were enrolled and randomized. Anti-EGFR 125IMAb 425 RIT was started during week 4 of radiotherapy, not later than 8 weeks after neurosurgery, and was repeated three times at 1-week intervals. Total activity given was 5026 + 739 MBq/patient. The tolerance of TRT was good. No immediate side effects of concomitant anti-EGRF 125I RIT were observed. Observation showed a median total survival (as evaluated from the primary neurosurgical treatment) of 14 months (range 3.5-28 months). There was no improvement in disease-free or total survival in the group of patients treated by TRT + RIT after neurosurgery. In addition, an immunohistochemical analysis of EGFR expression in gliomas was performed in a group of 100 cases and was distinctly positive in 50% grade IV gliomas and 68% grade III gliomas. We conclude that simultaneous radiotherapy and radioimmunotherapy with anti-EGFR 125I-MAb 425 is not beneficial over radiotherapy alone in adjuvant treatment of high-grade gliomas after neurosurgery. We also recommend individual confirmation of EGFR expression in further anti-EGFR radioimmunotherapy trials.