Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) infection is more common among renal allograft recipients compared with the general population due to immunosuppression. The epidemiological risk in a country is an important determinant of transplant TB after transplantation. We retrospectively analyzed 283 renal transplant recipients who underwent renal transplantation between 1990 and 2004. We evaluated the incidence, patient and disease characteristics, prognosis, and outcome of TB infection. Tuberculosis developed in 10 (seven men and three women of mean age of 41+/-9 years) among 283 patients (3.1%). All patients were culture-positive for M tuberculosis. Although pulmonary TB was the most common presentation in the general population, 50% of patients in the study group developed extrapulmonary TB. The mean elapsed time from renal transplantation was 38 months. Three patients (1%) developed TB in the first year after transplantation. All patients were treated with a quartet of anti-TB therapy. One patient developed isoniazid-related reversible hepatotoxicity. No acute allograft rejection occurred during the anti-TB therapy. Two patients (20%) with pulmonary TB died due to dissemination of the disease. In conclusion, extrapulmonary presentations of TB are more common among renal transplant recipients with the increased risk of mortality.