Recent evidence suggests that the postnatal cerebellum contains cells with characteristics of neural stem cells, which had so far only been identified in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subdentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In order to investigate the identity of these cells in the adult cerebellum, we have analyzed the expression of Sox1, a transcription factor from the SoxB1 subgroup and widely used marker of neural stem cells. In situ hybridization and the use of a transgenic mouse model show that, in the adult cerebellum, Sox 1 is only expressed in the Bergmann glia, a population of radial glia present in the Purkinje cell layer. Furthermore, another neural stem cell marker, Sox2 (also member of the SoxB1 subgroup), is also expressed in the Bergmann glia. We have previously shown that these same cells express Sox9, a member of the SoxE subgroup known for its role in glial development. Here we show that Sox9 is in fact also expressed in other regions harboring adult neural stem cells, suggesting that Sox9 represents a novel stem cell marker. Finally, using a Sox1-null mouse, we show that the formation of this Sox2/Sox9 positive Bergmann glia population does not require the presence of a functional Sox1. Our results identify these radial glia as a previously unreported Sox1/Sox2/Sox9 positive adult cell population, suggesting that these cells may represent the recently reported stem cells in the adult cerebellum.