Excessive foot pronation has been considered to be related to anterior knee pain. We undertook a prospective study to test the hypothesis that exertional anterior knee pain is related to the static and dynamic parameters of foot pronation. Two weeks before beginning basic training lasting for 14 weeks, 473 infantry recruits were enrolled into the study and underwent two-dimensional measurement of their subtalar joint displacement angle during walking on a treadmill. Of the 405 soldiers who finished the training 61 (15%) developed exertional anterior knee pain. No consistent association was found between the incidence of anterior knee pain and any of the parameters of foot pronation. While a statistically significant association was found between anterior knee pain and pronation velocity (left foot, p = 0.05; right foot, p = 0.007), the relationship was contradictory for the right and left foot. Our study does not support the hypothesis that anterior knee pain is related to excessive foot pronation.